There are many ways of hacking into computers. It can be done through a network system, clicking into unknown links, connecting to unfamiliar Wi-Fi, downloading software and files from unsafe sites, power consumption, electromagnetic radiation waves, and many more. However, computers can be protected through well-built software and hardware. By having strong internal interactions of properties, software complexity can prevent software crash and security failure.
Types of systems and businesses that maybe at risk from Cyber Security attacks include:
- Financial Systems
- Utilities & Industrial Equipment
- Consumer Devices
- Large Corporations
- Internet of Things
- Medical Systems
How do we fight back? (Security Measures)
A state of computer "security" is the conceptual ideal, attained using the three processes: threat prevention, detection, and response. These processes are based on various policies and system components, which include the following:
- User account access controls and cryptography can protect systems files and data, respectively.
- Firewalls are by far the most common prevention systems from a network security perspective as they can (if properly configured) shield access to internal network services, and block certain kinds of attacks through packet filtering. Firewalls can be both hardware- or software-based.
- Intrusion Detection System (IDS) products are designed to detect network attacks in-progress and assist in post-attack forensics, while audit trails and logs serve a similar function for individual systems.
- "Response" is necessarily defined by the assessed security requirements of an individual system and may cover the range from simple upgrade of protections to notification of legal authorities, counter-attacks, and the like. In some special cases, a complete destruction of the compromised system is favored, as it may happen that not all the compromised resources are detected.
Today, computer security comprises mainly "preventive" measures, like firewalls or an exit procedure. Another implementation is a so-called "physical firewall", which consists of a separate machine filtering network traffic. Firewalls are common amongst machines that are permanently connected to the Internet.
However, relatively few organisations maintain computer systems with effective detection systems, and fewer still have organised response mechanisms in place.
In the fields of physical security and information security, Cyber security, also known as or IT security, is the protection of computer systems from the theft or damage to the hardware, software or the information on them, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provided.
It includes controlling physical access to the hardware, as well as protecting against harm that may come via network access, data and code injection, and due to malpractice by operators, whether intentional, accidental, or due to them being tricked into deviating from secure procedures.
The field is of growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems and the Internet in most societies, wireless networks such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi and the growth of "smart" devices, including smartphones, televisions and tiny devices as part of the Internet of Things.